Title : Assessment of Parental Pressure and Peer Factors Affecting the Performance of UG Nursing Students

 

Assessment of Parental Pressure and Peer Factors Affecting the Performance of Undergraduate Nursing Students Studying in Selected Nursing Colleges 

 

 

Abstract

Parents put pressure on children for better performance due to their concern for the welfare of their children and for getting employment. Peer pressure is the influence exerted by a peer group in encouraging a person to change his or her attitudes, values and behaviour in order to conform to the group norms. The aim of the study was to evaluate the parent pressure and peer-related factors affecting the performance of undergraduate nursing students of selected nursing colleges of Maharashtra. In this study conducted in 2017, descriptive and inferential analysis was used; 50 undergraduate nursing students were selected by stratified random sampling. The findings show that the majority 16 (32%) of nursing students percentage in first year BSc nursing was less than 50 and majority 29 (58%) nursing students percentages in 12th standard was between 40% - 60%. Significant difference was observed between parental pres-sure- related factors and peer factors. The parental pressure factors had a higher impact (me-dian score=3.65) than peer factors impact (median score=3.30) on nursing students’ performance. There was significant difference between parental pressure factors and gender (p=0.044). The girls experienced more parental pressure (mean rank=30.78) than boys (mean rank=22.53).

 

Measuring the academic performance of a stu-dent in tertiary education has never been an easy task as it cannot be easily quantified in units. In most of circumstances student performance may be a product of socio-economical, en-vironmental and psychological factors. However failure to recognise these factors may increase failure rates and retard the educational system. Several fac-tors, academic or non-academic are responsible for the difficulty faced by many nursing students in their science studies (Alos et al, 2015).

Academic factors are: teaching methods, self-efforts for learning, whereas non-academic factors are health factors, peer factors, personal factors, financial factors, parental factors and the environment and its composition like people and culture (Kudari, 2016).

Nursing is one of the long and quite stressful courses of undergraduate study programme. It is a complex and demanding field of study requiring knowledge on a wide-range of subjects over a limited time period. That is why high failure rate (50- 60%) has been reported. 60% of first-year BSc Nursing stu-dents and many senior students failed their univer-sity examinations in Maharashtra (Khan, 2015).

Singh et al (2016) suggested that learning facili-ties, communication skills and proper guidance from parents have a positive and significant impact on students’ performance. The findings revealed a positive and statistically significant impact of learn-ing facilities (t=15.324, =0.514), communication skills (t =11.246) and proper guidance from parents (t=5.523; =0.208) on students’ academic performance.

Andreou et al (2015) suggested that curriculum overload, additional emphasis on problem solving and critical thinking, and more rigorous competency assessments that are based on performance in examinations and demonstration of clinical skills lead to more stressful and competitive learning environment for student nurses.

Martha et al (2013) suggested causal factors for poor academic performance in a number of institutions worldwide. Most of these studies focus on the three elements that intervene, viz. parents (family causal factors), teachers (academic causal factors), peers and students (personal causal factors).

Review of Literature

Kudari (2016) investigated the literature on the factors which affect the academic performance of college students. Non-academic factors were: back-ground, parentage, self-motivation. Academic factors were: time management skills, study skills, and study habits like taking notes, meeting deadlines, using information resources. Social involvement: college environment, class room environment, peers, teacher factors and involvement in campus activities. Home environment factors: parental educational background, occupation, economic status, marital status and home location; family size and peer group. Home locations have high correlation and significant influence on students’ academic performance; 90 percent of students agreed that friend is one of influential factor, its total number is second only to family, positive teacher factor col-lege environment, and favourable classroom envi-ronment have a significant positive effect on the academic achievement.

Joykutty et al (2012) studied the selected factors influencing the academic performance of the First Year Basic BSc Nursing students of colleges affiliated to Maharashtra University of Health Sciences, Nashik. An explanatory research design was used; 430 students of 2nd year Basic BSc Nursing were selected using stratified random sampling technique from nursing colleges. Data were collected using interview and self-reporting questionnaire.

It was revealed that 85.8 percent were female students and 14.2 percent were male students. There was no significant difference (t=0.06) between medium of instruction, residence in the college hostel and students mean scores scored at the 1st year Basic BSc Nursing University examination. Students reported that parental encouragement and monitoring for day-to-day studies signify the importance of parental sup-port during studies in an individual’s life (64.29%). Motivation and timely help from teachers were the key factors for better academic performance. The stu-dents residing in the hostel reported that group study, availability of more time for studies (51.32%), motivation (23.25%) and help from friends (26.75%) at hostel stay help them in scoring better in the University examination.

Mandal et al (2012) conducted a descriptive observational study to assess factors affecting the performance of undergraduate medical students in Eastern India. The data were collected using question-naire from 150 students appearing for their second professional exam. A pre-designed, pre-tested, structured and validated questionnaire was used. Data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics.

It was revealed that 55 (36.66%) students performed poorly mainly male students, who were unable to clear the examination at the first attempt. There was sig-nificant association between difficulty in understand-ing medium of instruction (0.0001), parental pres-sure (0.014), peer pressure (0.0052), sleep disorders (0.0370) and dissatisfaction with career choice (0.0462) with academic performance. There was no significant association between socioeconomic sta-tus and regularity in class with academic performance.

Gemeay et al (2016) investigated the effect of parents and peer attachment on academic perfor-mance of nursing students in universities of Saudi Arabia and Egypt. A comparative study design was used. A questionnaire (socio demographic data and attachment inventory scale) was used to collect data from 492 nursing students (level 3 to level

The study found that attachment of Egyptian students to their peers was significantly higher than Saudi students. Significant subscales of at-tachment between Saudi and Egyptian students were mother’s alienation and peer alienation, high parent and high peer attachment group working for academic achievement; however the low parent and peer attachment group was not considered as the single predictor of poor academic performance.

Temitope et al (2015) investigated the influence of peer group on the academic performance of secondary school students in Ekiti State, Nigeria. A questionnaire on Peer Group and Adolescent’s Academic Performance (PGAAP) were used to collect data from 225 students selected randomly from five secondary schools. The participants responded to PGAAP questionnaire. Independent t-test and Spearman Rank correlation coefficient was used. The study showed that peer’s age, gender and reli-gious affiliation do not influence academic perfor-mance of students. The peers relationship (0.15), socialisation (0.6), location (0.25), motivation (0.8) and drug use (0.4) have a significant influence on academic performance of students.

Objectives

The study aimed to assess the peer-related and pa-rental pressure-related factors affecting the performance of undergraduate nursing students studying in selected nursing colleges of Maharashtra.

Hypothesis

H1- There will be significant difference between peer related factors and parental pressure related factors affecting the performance of undergraduate nursing students and their selected socio demographic variables.

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Methodology

A descriptive research design was used to assess the peer-related factors and parental pressure-related factors affecting the performance of undergraduate nursing students; 50 undergraduate nursing students were selected using random sampling technique from selected nursing colleges of Maharashtra affiliated to MUHS. Socio-demographic data and five-point rating scale of peer-related factors and parental pres-sure-related factors was used. Content validity was evaluated by experts such as psychologists, sociolo-gists, and nursing experts. Reliability was calculated by Cronbach’s Alpha. The Cronbach’s Alpha value was 0.81.

Results

The data was analysed and interpreted according to objectives by using descriptive and inferential statistics. Table 1 shows distribution of BSc nursing stu-dents according to socio-demographic data.

Frequency and percentage distribution of under-graduate nursing students according to peer-related factors and parental pressure-related factors affect-ing the performance of undergraduate nursing students studying in selected nursing colleges of Maharashtra is shown in Tables 2 and 3.

Difference between peer-related factors and socio-demographic data

No significant difference between peer-related fac-tors and gender (0.277), age (0.087) medium for in-struction (0.693), socioeconomic status (0.588), num-ber of siblings (0.911), percentage in 12th standard (0.686) and percentage of BSc nursing first year (0.486) were found.

Difference between parental pressure-related factors and socio-demographic data

No significant difference was observed between pa-rental-related factors and age (0.071) medium for in-struction (0.075) socio-economic status (0.941), num-ber of siblings (0.427), percentage in 12th standard (0.790) and percentage of BSc nursing first year (0.741). Whereas significant difference between pa-rental-related factors with gender (0.044) was ob-served. The girls (mean rank=30.78) experienced more parental pressure than boys (mean rank=22.53).

 

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Discussion

Various studies had been done on factors affecting per-formance of students but assessment of peer-related factors and parental pressure-related factors affecting performance of nursing students are few.

Joykutty et al (2012) reported the selected factors influencing the academic performance of the First Year Basic BSc Nursing students of Maharashtra. They showed that the students who were staying with their parents reported that parental encouragement and monitoring for day-to-day studies had helped them score better marks at the university examination, which signifies the importance of parental support in studies. The students residing in the hostel reported that group study, availability of more time for studies, motivation and help from friends at hostel stay help them score better in the university examination and clear exams at first attempt. The present study shows that  there was high impact of parental pressure (median score=3.65) and low impact of peer-related factors (median score=3.30) on the performance of nursing students.

Above study supported the present study. Akhtar & Aziz (2011) reported that the parent pressure (0.001) affected positively and peer pressure (0.239) affected negatively the students and especially female university students in Islamabad. The peer pressure affect the academic achievement of male students (0.034) more as compared to female students (0.252). The present study shows that peer -related factors had low impact on the performance of nursing students.

Dimkpa & Inegbu (2013) reported that five main causes of poor performance of student nurses in Nigeria were: the parents inability to support needed for studying (9.0%), difficulty in understanding medium of instruction, inability to understand the science subjects (4.5%), lack of library and internet facilities (7.0%). lack of all basic needs (8.0%), which affect performance. There was significant effect ofparent pressure on student nurses. Parents’ encouragement was the important factor associated with increased performance of the student nurses.

The present study shows that parental pressure (3.65) has high impact on the performance ofnursing students. 

Implications of the Study Nursing Education

Nurse educators should organise lectures, seminars, career talk with focus on the factors affecting performance among nursing students and create awareness so in future they can apply appropriate knowledge for achieving success.

Nurse educator should focus on promoting class-rooms of acceptance; avoid playing favouritism and abandon negative image of students that they might possess.

Nursing Practice

A nurse should be aware of all the factors affecting performance of nursing students and their role in improving performance measures. They should su-pervise, guide and provide counselling services to overcome anxieties and worries of the students.

Nursing Administration

Nurse administrator should plan and organise symposium for parents, school administrators, nursing teachers and students. Arrange counselling sessions for parents and teachers periodically on positive interaction with the students sponsoring student-parent events.

Nursing Research

Extensive nursing research in exploring the factors affecting performance of nursing students is needed, so that attrition and failure rate can be reduced among nursing students. Dissemination of research findings is essential for the implementation of research evidence in nursing practice by means of conference presentation, workshop and journal publication so that the research evidences can be applied in various settings.

Limitations: The study was limited to 50 undergraduate nursing students due to time constraints. How-ever the present study suggested that the peer- and parental pressure-related factors are important and should be studied to enhance the nursing students’ performance positively.

Recommendations

  1. A similar study can be conducted on (a) a large sample size for the generalisation of findings, (b) other factors affecting performance among nursing students.
  2. A similar study can be conducted in other states.
  3. College-based counselling sessions for parents periodically to counsel them on positive interaction with the students

Conclusion

This study concluded that peer factors and parent pressure were important factors in significantly affecting the performance of the nursing students. The parents should be aware of their support, guidance and motivation which can enhance their student’s performance and also help them understand the peer pressure affecting their students’ performance.

 

References

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Author: Kalpana Borse1, Karesh Prasad2

 

The authors are: 1. PhD Scholar, People’s College of Nursing, Bhopal; Professor, ACPM College of Nursing, Sakri Road, Dhule (MS) and 2. Guide: Principal, People’s College of Nursing & Research Centre, People’s University, Bhopal.

 

Source: TNAI Journal

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